Sunday, June 2, 2013

Gauguin, Paul

The Agony in the Garden Gethsemane (Christ in the Garden of Olives)
oil on canvas
73 x 92 cm
Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA

“The Agony in the Garden Gethsemane: Self-Portrait as Christ” is a painting of Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane, awaiting the imminent betrayal of his identity by Judas to the Roman soldiers. This painting is of elevated importance since it is actually the first painted image of Paul Gauguin as Christ. The painting includes a group of people who are either approaching Gauguin or receding from him. This group could either be Christ's desciples leaving him alone or the Roman garisson summoned by Judas.

Interpreting the group as the disciples abandoning Christ, it is suggested that Gauguin painted himself “not unflatteringly” as Christ in order to sustain the image of his recently acquired role as the “Messiah of painting” who carries the burden of the salvation of art. A critic interprets this painting as a symbol of the Gauguin’s desertion by his friends. In late 1889 when this painting was completed Theo Van Gogh and Edgar Degas had been claiming to dislike the artist’s latest works, a stance which deeply hurt Gauguin.

Eugene Henri Paul Gauguin (1848 - 1903) was a leading French Post-Impressionist artist.
In 1870, he began a career as a stockbroker and remained in this profession for twelve years. He was a financially successful stockbroker when he began collecting works by the impressionists in the 1870s. Inspired by their example, he took up the study of painting under Camille Pissarro. In 1882, after a stock market crash and recession rendered him unemployed, Gauguin decided to abandon the business world to pursue life as a full-time artist.

In 1891 his rejection of European urban values led him to Tahiti, where he expected to find an unspoiled culture. Instead, he was confronted with a world already transformed by western missionaries and colonial rule. Gauguin had to invent the world he sought and he interwove the images and mythology of island life with those of the west and other cultures. He lived in among the natives but his health grew poorer; An ankle he had broken in Brittany did not heal properly, and he suffered from strokes. He had to depend on menial jobs (work that is beneath a person's skills) in order to support himself. In 1901 he moved to the Marquesas Islands. He died there, alone, of a stroke on May 8, 1903.

Gauguin’s art was not popular while he was alive. After his death, he was recognized for his experimental use of colors and synthesist style that was distinguishably different from Impressionism. His greatest innovation was the use of color, which he employed not for its ability to mimic nature but for its emotive qualities. He applied it in broad flat areas outlined with dark paint, which tended to flatten space and abstract form. This flattening of space and symbolic use of color would be important influences on early twentieth-century artists. Today, he is regarded as a highly influential founder of modern art. His unusual combinations of objects and people can be seen as forerunners of the surrealist (using fantastic imagery) art of the 1920s and later.
"Do not copy nature too much. Art is an abstraction. " (Gauguin)